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Penner River

Penner River


The Pennar (also Penner, Penna or Penneru) is a river of southern India. The Penner rises on the hill of Nandi Hills in Chikballapur District of Karnataka state, and runs 560 km (350 miles) north and east through the state of Andhra Pradesh to empty into the Bay of Bengal. The watershed of the Penner and its tributaries covers part of the southern Deccan plateau, including most of the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh and part of Karnataka. The Kolar Plateau forms the divide between the Penner watershed and those of the Kaveri, Ponnaiyar, and Palar rivers to the south. The Penner drains the northern portion of the plateau, which includes parts of Kolar and Tumkur districts in Karnataka. The Krishna River and its tributaries drain the Deccan plateau to the west and north of the Penner's watershed, and the low Erramala hills forms the northern divide of the Penner basin. The upper watershed of the Penner includes Cuddapah District, central and eastern Anantapur District, the southern part of Kurnool District, northwestern Chittoor District. The main tributaries of the Penner are the Jayamangali, Kunderu and Sagileru from the north, and the Chitravati, Papaghni and Cheyyeru from the south. The Penner then flows east through a gap in the Eastern Ghats ranges onto the plain of Coastal Andhra, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal 15 km east of Nellore at a place called Utukuru(also Vutukuru).

Estuary-The estuary of the Penner river extends 7km upstream from the Bay of Bengal. Tidal influence and salt water extends further upstream during the November to June dry season. Coastal dunes as high as 7 meters form around the river mouth. Upputeru tidal creek, 15km in length, and Isakapalli lagoon, separated from the Bay of Bengal by the Isakapalli barrier island, 180 m long and up to 3 m high, form the main coastal wetlands.

The upper basin of the Penner is largely made up of ancient Archean rocks, principally granite and schist. The lower basin is made up of young sediments, including laterite and recent alluvium.

The upper basin was formerly covered by tropical dry forest, thorn forest, and xeric shrublands. Most of the dry tropical forest has now disappeared, due to clearance for grazing and overharvesting the forests for timber and firewood, replaced by thorny shrublands. The remnant forests of the Deccan are largely deciduous, dropping their leaves in the dry winter and spring months. The East Deccan dry evergreen forests of Coastal Andhra were evergreen, but these forests have largely been reduced to tiny remnant pockets.

Location info:

Address:The Penner rises on the hill of Nandi Hills in Chikballapur District of Karnataka state
District:Chikballapur District
Nearest City:
Best time to visit: except monsoon all year.


The Penner basin has a dry tropical monsoon climate. The upper basin of the Penner is semi-arid, with summer temperatures of 25-46°C and winter temperatures of 18 - 28°C. Most of the rainfall is provided by the moisture-bearing southwest monsoon, which provides rain to most of India between June and September. The Penner basin lies in the rain shadow of the high Western Ghats ranges, which prevents much moisture from reaching the region. Post-monsoon cyclonic storms in the coastal region produce additional rain during September and October. The winter northeast monsoon, which provides rain between December and March, provides little rain to the upper basin and slightly more to the lower basin. It varies greatly from year to year in south India, sometimes bringing powerful cyclonic storms with flooding and high winds. The mean annual rainfall is 550 mm/year in Anantapur, and 900 mm/year in Nellore. The Penner basin suffered from a prolonged drought in the 1990s, which caused much misery among the regions farmers and generated political demands to build an aqueduct to bring water from the Krishna River to Rayalaseema.


The ruler of Avathi Mallabiregowda's son Marigowda was hunting one day at Kodimanchanahalli forest. A rabbit was standing in front of the dogs without fear. Seeing this, ruler was very happy and told his son that is due to the boldness of the people of this place. As such the ruler took permission from king of Vijaynagar and built a fort and formed a town. This in future becomes chickballapur. During the ruling of Baichegowda king of Mysore attacked the fort but had to withdraw due to the interference of Marathas. Sri Dodda Byregowda who came to power after baichegowda acquired the land, which was taken by Mysore king. In 1762 during the ruling of Chikkappanayaka, Hyder Ali captured the town for a period of 3 months. Then Chikkappanayaka agreed to pay 5-lakhs pagodas, and then the army was taken back.

After this, Chikkappa Nayaka with the help of Murariraya of Guthy tried to get back his powers. He was hiding at Nandi hills along with Chikkappa Nayaka. Immediately Hyder Ali acquired Chickballapur and other places and arrested Chikkappa Nayaka. Then with interfere of Lord Corn Wallis, Chickballapur was handed over to Narayanagowda. After knowing this, Tippu Sultan again acquired Chickballpaur. In 1791 British occupied Nandi & left Narayanagowda to rule the town. Due to this fight between Britishers and Tippu Sultan again started. Narayanagowda lost his administration. Later on British defeated Tippu. Chickballapur also came under the administration of Wodeyars of Mysore, which is now a part of Karnataka.

Interesting things to do:


Interesting things to Visit:


Mobile range info:


How to reach?

Nearest Railway Station:Chickballapur
Nearest Airport:Bangalore
Road Transport:It is well connected by roads various KSRTC & Private Buses ply daily to Kolar from various places.

Nearest Visiting places:

1. Tipu's Drop the place from where Tippu Sultan made his prisoners fall.
2. Tipu's Summer Residence a beautiful palace on top of this hill. This palace is closed to the general public .
3. Temples There are temples dedicated to Sri Bhoga Narasimha, Sri Ugra Narasimha and Sri Yoga Narasimha .
4. Gavi Veerbhadra swamy temple on top of the hill (The temple inside a big rock/cave)
5. Nehru Nilaya, where Jawaharlal Nehru used to stay, now a guest house of the horticulture department of India.
6. Rivers The rivers Pennar, Palar and Arkavati originate from these hills.Most of the sources have dried up .
7. Brahmashram It is said that Sage Ramakrishna Paramhamsa meditated here.Its a cool cave .
8. Muddenahalli The home town of Sir M. Visvesvarayya, the architect of modern Karnataka. Muddenahalli is just a few kilometres from Nandi Hills. His house is now a museum.

Nearest Petrol Pump:



* American Club
* Inn on Woodlake
* The Carriage House at the American Club

Things to carry:


Tips & Suggestions:


Help Line/Phone Number:

Police Station:Chickballapur
Nearest Hospital:Chickballapur
Society/Community Phone Number

Penner River Nearest Attraction

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